and style editing
and reference checking
Editing terms can be confusing and are sometimes used interchangeably.
To clarify this
situation, I delineate the following three categories of service
offered, each of which carries
a different fee level:
Identifying and correcting typographical, spelling, punctuation, and basic grammatical
(sometimes called copyediting)
Includes the above
plus attention to word choice and best usage, capitalization rules, clarity of
writing, polishing phrasing, grammar, syntax and reference format.
editing (substantive and
All of the above, plus extensive rewriting and reorganizing
for clarity and logic,
consistency and effectiveness of argument, improving
syntax and sentence structure, eliminating redundancies and awkwardness of phrasing,
to achieve overall stylistic sophistication.
consulting and writing conferencing
or telephone intensive conferences to discuss/brainstorm a project, develop a
thesis, provide a manuscript critique, solve problems with an existing text, etc.
Assuring citations and references conform to the style
manual required (APA, AMA, Chicago, MLA, Turabian or journal-specific requirements).